Conjunctions

Conjunctions

A Conjunction is a word that joins words. groups of words (phrases and clauses) or sentences.A conjunction is just a linking word. It does not modify or qualify any other word.

See the following sentences carefully:
1. My brother is intelligent and hardworking.
2. He Is sad but hopeful.
3. My mother washed clothes while I watched ‘Discovery Channel’.
4. My arm hurts when I Lift heavy objects.
5. Children ran into the class as soon as the bell rang.
In the above examples, the bold words are joining words called Conjunctions.

Kinds of Conjunctions

There are four kinds of conjunctions:
1. Coordinating Conjunctions
2. Subordinating Conjunctions
3. Correlative Conjunctions
4. Sentence Conjunctions

1. Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions are the words that join sentences of equal rank. Words like and, but, or, nor, for, still are examples of coordinating conjunctions.
For example:
1 City life is fost but tiring.
2. He worked hard still he is poor.
There are four kinds of Coordinating Conjunctions. They are:
(i) Cumulative Conjunctions: These are addition words, i.e they add one statement
to another. Words like and, both too, not only…. but also, no less than, as well as are cumulative conjunctions.
For example;
(a) He is an idler and a gambler
(b) He is both intelligent and friendly,

(ii) Alternative Conjunctions

These conjunctions express a choice between two alternatives. Words like either…or, neither…nor, otherwise, else, or else, or are alternative conjunctions.
For example;
(a) Leave the room or you will be caught.
(b) Walk quickly or else you will miss the bus.

(iii) Adversative Conjunctions :

These conjunctions express opinion or contrast between two statements. Words like but still, yet, nevertheless, while, only whereas are adversative conjunctions.
For example;
(a) He is very rich still he is not satisfied.
(b) Wise men love truth whereas fools avoid it.

(iv) Illative Conjunctions :

These conjunctions show that one statement or fact is inferred or proved from another. Words like therefore, for, so, then are illative conjunctions.
For example;
(a) He was found guilty, therefore, he was hanged.

2. Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunctions are words that join sentences of unequal rank. They join a dependent sentence to the independent sentence or principal sentence. Words like
because, since, after, so, if, yet, so that, lest, that are examples of subordinating
conjunctions.
For example;
1. He took treatment so that he might recover.
2. He walked carefully lest he should fall.
There are ten kinds of subordinating conjunctions. They are:
(i) Subordinating Conjunctions of Time: before, after, as soon as, until, while,when, since, as, so, long.
(a) I will leave as soon as you open the door.
(b) You can carry the child while I bring his pram.
(ii)Subordinating Conjunctions of Place: where wherever, whence.
(a) He follows me wherever I go.
(b) Where there is will, there is a way,
(ii) Subordinating Conjunctions of Cause/Reason: because, since, as, that.
(a) He will not go for exam because he is ill.
(b) Since she is your friend, you must help her.
(iv) Subordinating Conjunctions of Purpose: that,lest, in order that.
(a) Speak carefully lest you hurt someone.
(b) Work hard that you may succeed.

(v) Subordinating Conjunctions of Result/Consequence:so, that.

(a) He wasted so much time that he failed.

(b) He is so lazy that he cannot get up early.

(vi) Subordinating Conjunctions of Manner/Extent:as if, as though, as far as.
(a) It appears as though monsoons have arrived.
(b) She behaves as if she is very rich.
(vii) Subordinating Conjunctions of Effect:  so that, such that.
(a) His behaviour is such that everyone dislikes him.
(b) It rained so heavily that the drains overflowed.
(viii) Subordinating Conjunctions of Condition:  if, unless, provided, provided that.
(a) If you don’t finish your work in time, you will not be allowed to leave.
(b) They threatened to beat him unless he confessed. (‘Unless’ means if not Subordinating (ix) Conjunctions of Concession/Contrast: though, although, even, if, however, although, yet.
(a) I will finish the work even if I get late.
(b) Although he is rich, yet he is sad.
(x)Subordinating Conjunctions of Comparison: as-as, than, as much as, no less than.
(a) He likes You no less than me.
(b) He is clever as his sister.

3. Correlative Conjunctions

Conjunctions that are used in pairs are called Correlative Conjunctions. Pair of words like although…yet, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, both…and,
whether...or are examples of correlative conjunctions.
1. Ramya is both singer and dancer.
2. He is not only liar but cunning also.

4. Sentence Conjunctions

Some conjunctions are used to relate meanings and ideas of the sentences they connect. These are called Sentence Conjunctions. Words like hence, though, thus, yet, also, too, otherwise, moreover, only, equally are examples of sentence conjunctions.
1. Take some medicine otherwise your fever will not fall down.
2. I was not well hence did not go to play.
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