In the previous page, you have already studied about the sentences and their kinds.
Based on their meanings, sentence are of the following five kinds:
Declarative Sentences : These sentences make statements of some kind of observation. A declarative sentence can be affirmative or negative.
I Have won a gold medal in the debate competition. (Affirmative statement)
She does not like bananas. (Negative statement)
2. Interrogative Sentences: These are sentences that ask questions.
Do You have an extra pen?
Who is the Prime Minister of India?
An Interrogative sentence ends with a question mark.
An interrogative sentence can be a negative question also.
Doesn’t she like bananas?
Is he not the same fellow?
3. Imperative Sentences: These sentences express requests, advices, suggestions or
Please sit down.
Do as much as you are told.
Do not make a noise.
Imperative sentences can also be affirmative or negative.
Open your mouth (Affirmative commands)
Don’t open your mouth (Negative command)
4. Exclamatory Sentences : These sentences express feelings of surprise, admiration,praise, excitement, wonder or shock.
How brave these girls were!
What an interesting story this is!
5. Optative Sentences: These sentences express wish, prayer or desire.
May you win the race!
May our grandma get well soon!
Main and Subordinate Clauses
Like a sentence, a clause is also a group of words but it is only a part of the sentence. It
has a subject and a predicate. The subject consists of a noun and the words that go with it.
The predicate consists of a finite verb and the words that are associated with it.
Clauses are two types: Main Clause and Subordinate Clause.
1. Main Clause: The part of a sentence which has a subject and a finite verb, and is complete in its meaning, is called the main clause of the sentence.
I Read a book every month. (Main clause – I Read)
2. Subordinate Clause: The part of a sentence which has a subject and a finite
or non-finite verb, but not incomplete in meaning, is called the subordinate clause
of the sentence.
I cannot tell where does she live. (Subordinate clause-where does she live)
The subordinate clause depends on the main clause to clarify its meaning.
I cannot tell > Main clause
where does she live. > Subordinate clause
Here, ‘I cannot tell’ is complete in its meaning. And, ‘where does she live’ depends on the
main clause to clarify its meaning.
Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences
Sentences are also classified on the basis of their structure. On this basis, they are of three kinds:
Simple, Compound and Complex sentences.
1. Simple Sentences :
Read the following sentences:
1. Ahaan is a naughty boy.
2. The police caught the thief.
Each of the above sentences is a subject (Ahaan, The police) and a predicate (is a naughty
boy, caught the thief). These are Simple Sentences.
A sentence which has a subject and a predicate is called a Simple Sentence.
A simple sentence can have a subject and a verb only.
The elephant jumped.
A simple sentence can have a subject, a verb and subject complement.
The teacher was angry.
The boy is innocent.
He is a driver.
A simple sentence can have a subject, a verb and an object.
The waiter brought the bill.
The doctor advised the patient.
He bought a car.
A simple sentence can have a subject, a verb and two objects(direct and indirect)
My friend presented me a gift.
The witness told us the whole truth.
Garima gave his brother jacket.
A simple sentence can have a subject, a verb and an object with its extension.
My father bought a gift for his elder brother.
He borrowed money from his close relative.
Mr. Shukla sold his house to a property dealer.
2. Compound Sentences
Read the following sentences
1. Did not like him but I had to give him company.
2. The thief saw the police and ran away In each example, two sentences are joined together (compounded) by words but and and respectively. Hence, they are Compound Sentences.
Compound Sentence is a group of words which has two or more clauses joined together by coordinating conjunctions, such as and, but, yet, or, as well as, both still, either..or
neither… nor etc.
3. Complex Sentences
Read the following sentences:
I went to play after I had finished my home-work.
This sentence consists of two clauses:
I went to play. (-Main clause)
After I had finished my home-work. (-Subordinate clause)
Here, the subordinate clause depends on the main clause for its meaning. In other words,
the subordinate clause cannot convey its meaning without the main clause. Therefore the sentence is an example of a Complex Sentence. A sentence which consists of a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses called a Complex Sentence
We can change a simple sentence into a complex or compound sentence. Similarly, we can change a compound sentence into a simple or complex sentence, and a complex sentence
into a simple or compound sentence.
For example: Hearing the strange sounds the man ran away. (Simple sentence)
The man heard the strange sounds and ran away. (Compound sentence)
When the man heard the strange sounds, he ran away. (Complex sentence)
Here, we understand that
• Compound sentence can be changed into a simple sentence by turning the main clause into a phrase and into a complex sentence by turning the main clause into subordinate clause.
• A complex sentence can be changed into a simple sentence subordinate clause into a phrase.
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