We use words to express or thoughts and ideas. When these words are grouped in a proper way, they make a complete sense.
A Group of words that makes complete sense is called a Sentence.
Here are few examples:
|Column 1||Column 2|
|well writes she very.||She writes very well.|
|at twinkle night stars.||Stars twinkle at night|
In Column 1 the groups of words are not arranged in a proper way and hence they do not make a complete sense.
In Column 2, the groups of words are arranged in such a way that they are making a complete series. Therefore, they are examples of complete sentences.
Parts of a Sentence
A Sentence can be divided into two main parts Subject and Predicate.
Read the following sentences:
Boys are playing in the ground.
The Sun shines brightly.
The tomato is red.
Here, something is said about the coloured part in each sentence. The part of a sentence about which something is said in the sentence is called the Subject.
The subject of a sentence may have one or more words.
Girls danced (One-word subject)
That boy laughed at the Joker (Two-word subject)
Our Chief guest has arrived here (Three word subject)
The boy next to our door is very naughty (Mary-word subject)
The subject of a sentence is always a noun, or a word or a group of words that acts as a Noun.
Read the following sentences:
The Earth is round.
Dogs were barking in the street.
Here, the coloured part in each sentence says something about the subject of the sentence.
The part of the sentence which says something about the subject is called the predicate.
Order of Subject and Predicate
- In most sentences, the subject usually comes first. Sometimes, however, the subject is put after the predicate to make the sentence emphatic. For example: Blessed are the merciful. (The merciful are blessed.)
2 In interrogative sentences, the subject usually comes after the predicate or parts the predicate.
Are you scared ? 2. When will you go there?
3. In Imperative sentences, the subject is generally omitted.
Go away (You is omitted.)
Sit down (You is omitted.)
4. In exclamatory sentences, the subject is occasionally placed after the predicate part of the predicate. For example;
What a lovely painting it is ! (It’s A Lovely painting.)
Enlargement of The Subject
When the subject of a sentence consists of two or more words, then one of these words is more significant than the other ones. This word is called the Subject-word. The subject- word is qualified by an adjective or a group of words that acts as an adjective.
This is called the Enlargement or Attribute of the subject-word.
- My father is a teacher.
- Gandhiji, the father of nation, is still remembered.
- Suresh, my cousin, is very naughty.
- Red Roses are blooming in the garden.
- Empty vessels sound much.
In the above sentences, the coloured words are the attributes of the subject-words.
Extension of Predicate
A predicate can have one or more words. When it consists of one word. It is a verb. When it consists of two or more words, its essential word is a verb. The verb of the
predicate may be qualified by an adverb or a word or a group of words that does work as an adverb. This is called an Extension or Adverbial Qualification.
Mona dances very well.
The shopkeeper spoke gently.
She shouted with an anger.
In The above sentences, the coloured words are adverbial qualifications.
Objects of the Predicate
A predicate may have a transitive verb. In that case, it requires an object to complete the sense of the sentence. This object may be a noun, a pronoun, an adjective used as a noun, q gerund, an infinite or a group of words that acts a noun.
He caught a bird. (Noun used as object)
My friend knows him. (Pronoun used as object)
The shopkeeper helped the poor. (Adjective used as object)
His brother does not know driving. (Gerund used as object)
Radhika loves to dance. (Infinitive used as object)
The plumber knows how to check the leakage. (Group of words used as object)
Enlargement of the Object
The object of a predicate may have an enlargement. This enlargement can be a noun, an objective, a participle, an infinitive or a group of words that acts as an adjective.
He called Meera’s mother. (Enlargement is noun)
The customer purchased red apple. (Enlargement is an adjective)
They caught the wandering dogs. (Enlargement is a participle)
The girl had a point to explain. (Enlargement is an infinitive)
The police arrested the people protesting against them. (Enlargement is a group of words)
Direct and Indirect Objects
A predicate may consist of two objects: Direct object and indirect object.
- The object that shows what is said to or given to a person, or done for a person is called the Direct object of the predicate.
- The object that shows the person for whom something is said or done, or to whom something is given is called the Indirect object of the predicate.
Examples of direct and indirect objects are:
- The Chairman presented the captain the cup (Direct object- The cup. Indirect object- The captain)
- The grandmother told us a story. (Direct object- a story, Indirect object- us )
Complement of the Object
Complement of the object of the predicate is the added information about the object.
- The committee selected Rajan as the captain.
- The achievements made her proud.
Here, in the first sentence Rajan’ is the object and the added information about this
Object ‘as the captain‘ is its complement. Similarly, ‘her‘ is the object in the second sentence and the added information about object, ‘proud‘ is its complement.
LET’S SUM UP
- A group of words that makes a complete sense is called a Sentence.
- A sentence has two parts, namely Subject and Predicate.
- The subject-word of a sentence may be qualified by an adjective, or a group of words that acts as an adjective.
- The verb of the predicate may be qualified by an adverb or a word or a group of words that acts as an adverb.
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