Important Facts About Karnataka State
|Area||1,91, 791 sq. km.|
|No. of Districts||30|
|Decadal Growth Rate||15.6|
|Sex-Ratio (per thousand)||973|
|Sex Ratio (0-6 age group)||948|
|Percentage of Rural Population||61.3%|
|Percentage of Urban Population||38.7%|
|Distt. With Maximum Rural Population||Belgaum|
|Distt. With Maximum Urban Population||Bangalore|
|Establishment||1st November 1956|
|State Bird||Indian Roller|
|First Chief Minister||Arcot Ramaswami Mudaliar|
|First Governor||Jaya Chamrajendra Wodeyar|
History of Karnataka State
- The history of Karnataka is very ancient. The evidence of the Palaeolithic and Neolithic era in the forms of tools, found in the valley of Tungabhadra, Ghatprabha and Kauveri, tells about it.
- The word ‘Karnataka’ is also used in ‘Brihatsamhita’ written by Varahmihir.
- The Satavahanas were succeeded by the kadambas in upper karnatic and in the lower region of Tungbhadra river, the Gang established their rule.
- The Chalukya of Badami (500 735 A.D.) ruled over a wider area, from the Narmada to the Kauveri from the days of Pulikeshin II who even defeated Harshavardhana of Kanauj.
- Rashtrakutas (753-973 A.D.) of Malkhed, who succeeded them levied tribute on the rulers or Kanauj successively in the so called ‘Age of Imperial Kanauj. After the decline of the Chalukya dynasty, this region saw the emergence of three Kannada dynasties, Yadava of Devgirl, Hoysals of Halebidu and Kalchuris of Dwarsamundra.
- Mahmud Gawan a minister of Bahamani Kingdom, who later became the Sultan of the state, was famous for his innovative nature.
- He promoted education and literature and he was also known as a great administrator.
- In 16th century, Sultans of Deccan dominated the northern part and Hindu king of Mysore dominated the south.
- Though Mughals ruled Karnataka in later period, but those are not important in history.
- At last in 1947, the year of Indian independence, the then king Jaya Chamarajendra Wadeyar decided to join the Indian Union after getting fully support of his subjects.
- The only congress session which was presided by the Rashtrapita Mahmta Gandhi, Belgaum, is in the state of Karnataka.
- Gangadhar Rao, R.R. Diwakar, Kaddappa Raghwendra Rao etc. are some famous freedom fighters of Karnataka.
- After independence, the state of Mysore was created in 1956 by uniting the Kannada speaking areas of Madras presidency, Hyderabad state and Mysore state.
- The state was renamed as Karnataka on 01 November, 1973.
Administration Of Karnataka State
- State Legislature : Bicameral,
- Vidhan Sabha
- Vidhan Parishad
- Member of Vidhan Sabha : 224
- Member of Vidhan Parishad: 75
- Member of Lok Sabha : 28
- Member of Rajya Sabha : 12
- High court : Bangalore (1884)
Geography of Karnataka State
- Karnataka lies to the south of Goa and Maharastra, to the west of Andhra Pradesh, to the north-west of Tamil Nadu and to the north of Kerala.
- It has a sea-coast of nearly 400 km (300 km with inundations).
- About 750 km from north to south and 400 km from west to east, Karnataka can be divided in four physiographic regions:
- The northern plateau with a general elevation of 300 to 600 metres with the mean sea level.
- The central plateau with a general elevation of 450 to 700 meters.
- The southern plateau with a general elevation of 600 to 900 meters.
- The coastal regions comprising the plains and the western ghats.
- Wildlife found in Karnataka include gaur, sambhar, barking deer, elephant, tiger, sloath beer, open-bill stork, white ibis, egret, heron, patridge, peafowl. wail and hornbill.
Major Rivers of Karnataka State
Major Waterfalls in Karnataka State
- Raja Rocket
Major Multipurpose River Projects
- Tungbhadra project
- Ghatprabha Project
- Bhadra Project
- Kalindi Hydro-electric Project
- Upper Krishna Project
- Sharvati Hydro-electric Project
- Valsur lake
- Sankay lake
Major National Parks And Sanctuaries
- Bandipur National Park
- Bannerghatta National Park
- Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary
- Kakkru Belhr Sanctuaries
- Mandagadde bird Sanctuary
- Gudavi bird Sanctuary
- Attiveri bird Sanctuaries
- Dandeli Sanctuaries
- Shravati valley Sanctuaries
- Bhadra Sanctuary
- Mukhambil Sanctuary
- Nagarhole National Park
- Someshwara sanctuary
Economy of Karnataka State
- Agriculture and allied activities account for nearly 56 percent of the workforce in Karnataka.
- The state contributes about 59% in national food grains production
- Karnataka enjoys a prominent position on the horticulture and map of India.
- As far as the mineral is concerned, it is endowed with rich deposits.
Major Crops of Karnataka State
Paddy, Jowar, Ragi, Maize, Bajra, Wheat, Pulses, Ground nut, sunflower, cotton, sugar cane, tobacco.
- Iron & steel : Bhadrawati
- Glass : Bangalore
- Paper : Bhadrwati, wadeli
- Cotton : Bangalore, Mysore, Gulberga
- Silk : Belgaum, kolar, Bangalore
- Woolen : Bangalore, Bellari
- Sulphuric Acid : Bailegula
- Gold : Kolar, Hatti
- Mica : Hasan
- Manganese : Chitaldurga, Kadur, Chickmanglore, Shimonga
- Iron ore : Kemangundi, Donimalai, Babaudan Mountain
Society & Culture Of Karnataka State
- The principal language of Karnataka is kannada.
- Shree pampa was the very first poet of Kannada, who wrote Adipuranam and Vikrmaurjun Vijay.
- The propounder of Dvaitabad, Madhvacharya, belonged to Karnataka.
- Karnataka boasts a fascinating variety of folk theatre called Bayalata, Dasarata, Sannata, Doddata, Parijata, and Yakshagana are the most popular forms of Bayalata.
- Prominent festivals of the state include Ugadi, Dussehra, Nagapanchami, Navaratri, Yellu Amavasya, Ramzan, & Deepawali.
Major Temples Of The State
- Hoysaleswar temple : Halebid
- Kedareswar Shiva temple : Halebid
- Parashunath Jain temple: Halebid
- Lakshminarayan Temple : Hassan
- Srirangapatnath swami Temple : Srirangapatnam
- Prasanna Chenna keshab Temple: Somnathpur
- Gomateshwara Jain Temple : Shravanbelgola
- Patlawiram Temple : Hampi
- Hazara Rama swami Temple : Hampi
- Cave Temple : Badami
- Papanath Temple : Pattadakal
- Sanghmeswar Temple : Pattadakal
- Ladkhan Temple : Aihole
- Rabanfedi Cave Temple : Aihole
- Huchimalli Temple : Aihole
- Gangadhreswar Temple : Mysore
- Nandi Temple : Bangalore
- Karnataka has many tourist spots. Some of them are:
- Bangalore – (famous for parks and industries)
- Mysore – (Brindavan Gardens)
- Belur, Halebid and Somnathpur – (famous Hoysala monuments)
- Aihole & Pattadkal – (for the 1300 years old rock-cut and structural temples)
- Hampi – (famous open airmuseum)
- Gulberga, Bidar, Bijapur – (renovated Indo-Saracenic monuments)
- Udupi, North Kannada – (beautiful beaches)
- Jog, Gokak, Mogod – (Water falls)
- Nandi Hills, Kodachadri – (hill stations)